Breaks - Broken limbs will be most common in the center of the tree since vertical limbs often double over under the weight of ice. Sometimes they can be hard to spot on trees having thick canopies. Make sure to check this area of the tree for limb breakage. Have a tree professional check the tree if you are not sure if there is significant damage. Broken limbs will need to be removed appropriately to prevent decay or weak growth in the tree.
Splits - With the added weight of ice trees with forks in their trunk structure can develop splits that extend through the branch or trunk. The split branches do not always break off of the tree and in many cases these situations CAN BE REPAIRED with little adverse health for the tree since the vascular system of the tree is still intact. The key factor in repairing the tree successfully is having it repaired as soon as possible. Minimizing the exposure of the tree's heartwood to the elements increases survival chances dramatically. The primary methods for repairing are through cabling and bracing.
Shears - As trees bend they create opposing forces (tension and compression) on the top and bottom of the limb. This can result in a shear, or split, along the length of the limb. Because of the shear, the limb will not return to its original position once the ice has melted away and the weight removed. This damage is hard to spot from the ground but is a problem for the tree since it seriously degrades the strength and structural integrity of the tree. Like splits, this type of damage may be repairable depending on the situation
The key for the health of your tree is to get the damage repaired as soon as possible and have an experienced arborist do the work. These repairs will have a significant long term impact on the shape and health of the tree.